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Green Dot - Power saving Solutions

World is Short of Power & any SAVING in POWER is similar to Generating Power. It has become a national issue now . SAVING POWER is also saving your costs. There are inherent losses in any power usage circuits . Some are Non Avoidable Losses – others are avoidable losses. Non-avoidable losses can be taken care of by purchasing only more energy efficient equipment . The avoidable losses on existing equipment or set up is a concern that needs to be addressed.

One major factor is the fluctuating voltage conditions at site. Both higher & lower voltages – over the rated voltage of equipment add to losses. In any POWER METER Bill – the user pays for these losses and can save substantial money in Billing costs apart from saving in Maintenance & Life costs of the equipment.

Other major factor in Industrial connections is on account of difference in Power Factor of the connected loads varying from 1. Issue is what is Power Factor. We have explained Power Factor in quite details in second part of this note but briefly it is ratio of ACTUAL POWER and APPARENT POWER of a particular load. We should be accountable to ACTUAL POWER USAGE but Supply companies now charge for Apparent Power because their equipment & net work has to handle Apparent Power that needs to have HIGHER CAPACITY of their equipment and hence their higher costs.

Some times the users are not aware of the seriousness of this LOSS FACTOR in their set up and users are paying as much as 30 to 40 % extra costs in their energy bills. We suggest POWER AUDIT to be carried out that will high light & pin point the exact issue . In a systematic Power Audit – a Power Monitoring Device – records 34 PARAMETERS *of Power in an EXCEL SHEET that further can show in more high lighted form of GRAPHS as to how their POWER USAGES are taking place in their premises.

* 34 Parameters of Power Audit

1. Harmonic Voltages : VLN Y – THD, VLN B – THD, VLN - THD
2. Harmonic Currents : Current R – THD, Current Y – THD, Current B – THD, Current THD
3. Actual Power : KW R, KW Y, KW B, KW
4. Energy units over a particular span of measurement : KWh
5. Apparent Power : KVA R, KVA Y, KVA B, KVA
6. Apparent Energy Units over a particular span of measurement : KVAh
7. Power Factor : PF(R), PF(Y), PF(B), PF
8. Currents : CURRENT(R), CURRENT(Y), CURRENT(B), CURRENT
9. Voltages Line to Line : VLL(RY), VLL(YB), VLL(BR), VLL
10. Voltages Line to Neutral : VLN R , VLN Y , VLN B , VLN

The Power Audit Report will point to WEAK & LOSS Producing areas that need to be corrected.

THE SOLUTIONS are to

1. INSTAL A VOLTAGE STABILISER
2. POWER FACTOR Correcting Device.
3. Power Audit Metering Panel

Green Dot manufactures both these devices of quality . These use latest advanced technology of Micro Controllers in the control circuits to provide maximum correction and advantages.

While Saving in Power & maintenance get further High Lighted from table below – the savings from POWER FACTOR – can be found from ENERGY BILLS. Reading your energy bill in detail will show KWH & KVAH , & PF readings. You are paying for KVAH readings whereas you actual consumption is KWH. Youe Existing Automatic Power Factor Controller may be improper, inadequate 7 may not be correcting power factor of individual phases in case of UNBALANCED loads. These extra charges being paid can be saved by you. We have affected savings upto 30-40 % after Power Audit Reports.

Power Audit Metering Panel is another good introduction and it has been prudent approach to keep this installed permanently . The Audit Metering Panel has a WIRELESS TRANSMITTING DEVICE that sends data through GSM Internet to any Computer, Lap top or Mobile. The Data of the device is transmitted to a CLOUD SERVER monitored and controlled by us . The Data is kept stored for access upto 1.5 Years and can be accessed at any time for full year, monthly or daily viewing . We also supply these panels.

Some useful notes below may be seen & studied for full benefits.

On Motors, Lighting, Automatic Controls, Heating & Air Conditioning, YOU STAIGHT WAY SEE HOW LOSSES INCREASE & LIFE OF EQUIPMENT is affected.


 

With Voltage 15% Low

With Voltage 10% High

Motors,Air Conditioning plant motors, Water pump motors, Electric lifts, Plant & machinery motors etc.

Torque

Decreases

38%

Increases

21%

Current

Increases

20%

Decreases

6%

Losses

Increases

38%

Increases

19%

Temp.

Increases

32%

Increases

10%

Motor Life

Decreases

72%

Decreases

25%

2.Lighting, Tube Lighting, Mercury Vapour Lamps, Sodium Vapour Lamps, Incandescant

Bulb Life

Increases

880%

Decreases

67%

Light

Decreases

40%

Increases

33%

Need one third more bulbs to give adequate lighting.

  1. Heating, Air Conditioning Heaters, Radiator Heaters, Geysers etc.

Heat 

Decreases

28%

Increases

  21%

Typical batch heating job will take 33% more time.

  1. Relays, Contactors, Solenoid Valves etc, Automatic Circuit Coils etc. 

Force

Decreases

28%

Increases

   21%

Contactors takes longer to open valve, close a relay, eject a part, etc. The device may fail to operate.

  1. CNC Controls & Electronics

System failures increase, Computer monitors and pictures shrink, and circuits may fail to operate.

  1. Transmitters

Power tube life decreased by 2/3 because cold operation promotes buildup of contaminates in tube.

  1. X-Ray, CAT Scanners, MRI

Underexposed X-Ray and CAT images, & poor quality MRI images due to power starvation.  Controls may shut down and reset. Automatic Controls, Heating & Air Conditioning, Transmitters & X-Rays etc.

THIS ESTABLISHES THE need of Voltage Stabiliser SERVO STABILISER is TECHNICALLY the BEST CHOICE. Under Normal usages – the Cost of Servo Stabiliser gets paid within 2-3 Years by savings in Energy Costs.

A NOTE ON POWER SAVING from use of AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTORS

How Your Plant Can Lower its Bills Using Power Factor Correction………………
Identify Savings and Improve Efficiency by Measuring Your PF ……………….
What Is a Power Factor and How Does it Affect Your Utility Bill?...

In electrical engineering, Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of real power to the apparent power flowing to the load from the source. From a business stand point it's important to understand how having a low Power Factor raises your plant or factory's power bill.

With our WIRELESS DATA MONITORING SYSTEM, we regularly take calls from customers who want a way to measure and analyze their power factor, and so we present this article to help you identify this value and use corrective techniques to raise it for substantial savings and greater equipment efficiency.

Power Factor is measured between 0 and 1.0 (usually given as a percentage, with 100% or 1.0 being unity) and is usually judged as either leading or lagging, depending on the position of the current wave form with respect to the voltage. If your facility's PF is below a certain level (typically 96%-95% for many power companies), your provider will charge a reactive power fee. This is because a low PF represents an inefficient load source that is drawing reactive, i.e.'non-working,' power which the utility has to make up for. Unless your facility can raise its PF to 96-95% or above, you'll continue to see this extra charge every month on your bill.

For maximum efficiency, power in an AC circuit is best used when the voltage and current are in alignment. However in the real world much of your electrical equipment is probably delaying as it draws current, meaning that the current and voltage are instead in misalignment. In this case your equipment has a level of inefficiency depending on how misaligned it is, causing it to draw more current to operate. Therefore your PF value reveals how efficiently your AC power system and equipment are using power.

How Is Power Factor Calculated?

In A.C circuit's Power Factor is calculated using three aspects of its electrical power as they relate to one another, these being:

=> Real power—Power used to run equipment, expressed in kW.

Figure 1--Calculating Power Factor

In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor (near 100%) for the same amount of useful power transferred. These higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system and also require larger wires and other equipment. In other words, your Power Factor percentage shows you how much of the total current is being used to do real work, i.e. a PF of 80% means that a full 20% of the current is non-working power. Again, because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy, electrical utilities will usually assign a penalty fee to industrial or commercial customers if they have a low power factor.

A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses and improve voltage regulation at the load , so it's often beneficial to correct the power factor of a system to near 100%. When reactive elements supply or absorb reactive power near the load, the apparent power is reduced. Motors driven by Variable Speed Drives will use the same power as before, but may draw more current. Note that with reduced stored energy in the DC Bus capacitors, they may be more vulnerable to power dips.

How You Can Benefit From Power Factor Correction

1. LOWER ELECTRICITY BILLS: PF correction is an actionable way to lower your utility bills. Savings can range from hundreds to tens of thousands of dollars per year, depending on the size of your facility.

2. AVOID UTILITY REACTIVE POWER FEES: Utility companies routinely charge reactive power fees to consumers with low power factors (less than 96%-95%). For example, this can result in your bills increasing by up to 20%, depending on which company is supplying your electricity.

3. REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS: By utilizing power factor correction you can also lower the amount of carbon emissions released into the atmosphere. This can be another great source of savings.

4. REDUCE I2R LOSSES in transformers and electrical distribution equipment.

5. ACHIEVE HEAT REDUCTION in cables, switchgear, transformers and alternators which in turn prolongs the lifespan of this equipment.

6. REDUCE VOLTAGE DROP in cables, allowing the same cable to supply a larger motor and improve the starting of motors located at the end of long cable runs. This also helps to avoid motor failure and damage to your equipment.

What's Your PF? Find Out Using a Power Data Logger:

We offer SERVICES of our Power Sense Wireless Data Logger & carry out limited Power Quality Audit . Three Phase Voltage & Current Data logger measures Power Factor between L1 (voltage) and A1 (current) and is an effective device to carry out a PF study on that part of the three-phase system. This power data logger is specifically designed to monitor one, two or three current channels, as well as one, two or three voltage channels, allowing you to monitor the loading and energy consumption of your installation.

The advantage of our Power Sense products over most others is that these data loggers constantly sample information (recording the Min, Max and Average) over the set period. In contrast many other products only take 'snapshots' of what is going on and can miss 99.9% of the data that is critical to your overall analysis.

How Can You Raise Your Power Factor?

To avoid reactive power fees and improve equipment efficiency, you can raise your power factor by applying several different power factor correction techniques. Individual electrical customers who are regularly charged by their utility for a low PF often install correction equipment to reduce or remove these costs. Power factor correction brings the power factor of an AC power circuit closer to 100%, such as by supplying reactive power of the opposite sign by adding capacitors or inductors that act to cancel the inductive or capacitive effects of the load, respectively.

To begin with there are a few simple methods you can use to raise your PF without buying expensive devices. For example, check your existing equipment to see if any pieces are operating above the voltage it's been rated for. You can also cut back on how often your plant is running motors with a light load and avoid running idling motors for extended periods.

Linear loads with a low power factor such as induction motors can be corrected using a passive network of capacitors or inductors. In the electricity industry, inductors are said to consume reactive power and capacitors are said to supply it, even though the energy is really just moving back and forth on each AC cycle. For example, you can offset the inductive effect of motor loads by using locally-connected capacitors. If a load has a capacitive value, connect inductors (also known as reactors in this context) to correct the power factor.

Capacitors prevent equipment from having to draw reactive power from the grid. Non-linear loads such as rectifiers distort the current drawn from the system. In such cases, you can use active or passive power factor correction to counteract the distortion and raise the power factor. The devices correcting the power factor may be located at a central substation, spread out over a distribution system, or built into power-consuming equipment.

However, reactive elements cannot simply be applied without engineering analysis. The reactive elements can create voltage fluctuations and harmonic noise when switched on or off. They will supply or sink reactive power regardless of whether there is a corresponding load operating nearby, increasing the system's no-load losses. In the worst-case scenario, reactive elements can interact with the system and with each other to create resonant conditions, resulting in system instability and severe overvoltage fluctuations.

Another option is to use an automatic power factor correction unit.

In one OLD TECHNOLOGY, a number of capacitors that are switched by means of contactors. These contactors are controlled by a regulator that measures power factor in an electrical network. Depending on the load and power factor of the network, the power factor controller will switch the necessary blocks of capacitors in steps to ensure that the power factor stays above a selected value. In the latest TECHNOLOGY, in the line a Motorised Variable Transformer is used to connect in parallel to a FIZED ONE VALUE capacitor and a controller drives the motor forward & backward to increase or decrease the voltage fed to the capacitor – this variable voltage increases or decreases the value of capacitance. No switching takes place and hence no surges are generated.

Note:Detailed wite up is made available on this technology in APFC Section of our web site.

Alternately also , instead of using a set of switched capacitors, you can utilize an unloaded synchronous motor to supply reactive power. The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation. This is referred to as a synchronous condenser. Started and connected to the electrical network, it Operates at a leading power factor and puts VARs on to the network required to support a system's voltage or to maintain the system PF at a specified level.

For power factor correction of high-voltage power systems or large, fluctuating industrial loads, power electronic devices such as the Static VAR compensator etc. These systems are able to compensate for the sudden changes of power factor much more rapidly than contactor-switched capacitor banks, and being solid-state they require less maintenance than synchronous condensers.

Summary: By using a device to identify the Power Factor of your plant or factory's equipment, you can realize substantial savings, improve the efficiency of your electrical equipment, and help prevent shutdowns or delays due to overheating machinery. It may take some preliminary analysis and/or investment in energy-efficient equipment, but you can realize long-term energy savings by measuring your facility's power factor and applying suitable PF correction techniques.

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